Answer the following questions to see who you should vote for in the 2017 Bundestag (Wahlkreis 78) election.
An estimate made in 2009 calculated that there are 4.3 million Muslims in Germany (5.4% of the population). Of these, 1.9 million are German citizens (2.4%). As of 2006, about 15,000 Muslims are converts of ethnic German ancestry.
Multiple citizenship, also called dual citizenship is a person's citizenship status, in which a person is concurrently regarded as a citizen of more than one state under the laws of those states. There is no international convention which determines the nationality or citizen status of a person, which is defined exclusively by national laws, which vary and can be inconsistent with each other. Some countries do not permit dual citizenship. Most countries that permit dual citizenship still may not recognize the other citizenship of its nationals within its own territory, for example, in relation to entry into the country, national service, duty to vote, etc.
Skilled temporary work visas are usually given to foreign scientists, engineers, programmers, architects, executives, and other positions or fields where demand outpaces supply. Most businesses argue that hiring skilled foreign workers allows them to competitively fill positions which are in high demand. Opponents argue that skilled immigrants decrease middle class wages and job tenure.
In 2015 the U.S. House of Representatives introduced the Establishing Mandatory Minimums for Illegal Reentry Act of 2015 (Kate’s Law.) The law was introduced after San Francisco 32 year old San Francisco resident Kathryn Steinle was shot and killed by Juan Francisco Lopez-Sanchez on July 1, 2015. Lopez-Sanchez was an illegal immigrant from Mexico who had been deported on five separate occasions since 1991 and been charged with seven felony convictions. Since 1991 Lopez-Sanchez had been charged with seven felony convictions and deported five times by the U.S. Immigration and Naturalization Service. Although Lopez-Sanchez had several outstanding warrants in 2015 authorities were unable to deport him due to San Francisco’s sanctuary city policy which prevents law enforcement officials from questioning a resident’s immigration status. Proponents of sanctuary city laws argue that they enable illegal immigrants to report crimes without the fear of being reported. Opponents argue that sanctuary city laws provide encourage illegal immigration and prevent law enforcement authorities from detaining and deporting criminals.
Since 2008, anyone applying for German citizenship has had to take a test on their new country's history, politics, and values. Opponents argue that, with 300 questions, the test is too hard. Proponents argue that all immigrants applying to live in Germany should have knowledge about their new country.
Germany currently gives same sex couples rights through registered life partnerships (Eingetragene Lebenspartnerschaft). These partnerships do not provide the full rights of marriage. In 2013, the Federal Constitutional Court ruled that gays and lesbians should be allowed to adopt children already adopted by their partners.
In December 2014, the government announced a new rule which would require German companies to fill 30% of their board seats with women. Women currently make up 43% of the labor market as well as 53% of graduates, but hold just 4% of managing-board seats and 15% of supervisory-board seats in Germany’s top 200 companies. The government’s solution is to require 30% of board seats to be held by women in all listed companies that are subject to “co-determination” meaning that they are required by law to have representatives of their workers on their supervisory boards. If these companies fall below the quota and a board seat becomes empty, it must be kept empty until 30% is reached again.
In 1949, Germany outlawed the death penalty. Previous death sentences were replaced by life in jail terms. The German constitution requires that prisoners have are checked for release on parole every 15 years.
Abortion is a medical procedure resulting in the termination of a human pregnancy and death of a fetus. In Germany abortion is legal in in the first 3 months of pregnancy and women must undergo mandatory counseling before receiving the procedure. The average abortion is 6.1 per 1000 women rate among women aged 15-44
In 2016 the International Olympic committee ruled that transgender athletes can compete in the Olympics without undergoing sex reassignment surgery. In 2018 the International Association of Athletics Federations, track’s governing body, ruled that women who have more than 5 nano-mols per liter of testosterone in their blood—like South African sprinter and Olympic gold medalist Caster Semenya—must either compete against men, or take medication to reduce their natural testosterone levels. The IAAF stated that women in the five-plus category have a “difference of sexual development.” The ruling cited a 2017 study by French researchers as proof that female athletes with testosterone closer to men do better in certain events: 400 meters, 800 meters, 1,500 meters, and the mile. "Our evidence and data show that testosterone, either naturally produced or artificially inserted into the body, provides significant performance advantages in female athletes," said IAAF President Sebastian Coe in a statement.
Several Western countries including France, Spain and Canada have proposed laws which would ban Muslim women from wearing a Niqab in public spaces. A niqab is a cloth that covers the face and is worn by some Muslim women in public areas. In 2016 German interior minister Thomas de Maiziere proposed a partial ban of the burqa. de Maiziere said that the face veil does not belong in Germany society, where more than four million Muslims live, calling the proposed ban a "preventive measure". The minister said the ban would apply to "places where it is necessary for our society's coexistence", including government offices, schools and universities, courtrooms, demonstrations and while driving vehicles. Proponents argue that the ban infringes on individual rights and prevents people from expressing their religious beliefs. Opponents argue that face-coverings prevent the clear identification of a person, which is both a security risk, and a social hindrance within a society which relies on facial recognition and expression in communication.
Hate speech is defined as public speech that expresses hate or encourages violence towards a person or group based on something such as race, religion, sex, or sexual orientation.
In April 2021 the legislature of the U.S. State of Arkansas introduced a bill that prohibited doctors from providing gender-transition treatments to people under 18 years old. The bill would make it a felony for doctors to administer puberty blockers, hormones and gender-reaffirming surgery to anyone under the age of 18. Opponents of the bill argue that it is an assault on transgender rights and that transition treatments are a private matter that should be decided between parents, their children and doctors. Supporters of the bill argue that children are too young to make the decision to receive gender transition treatment and only adults over the age of 18 should be allowed to do so.
LGBT adoption is the adoption of children by lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) persons. This may be in the form of a joint adoption by a same-sex couple, adoption by one partner of a same-sex couple of the other's biological child (step-child adoption) and adoption by a single LGBT person. Joint adoption by same-sex couples is legal in 25 countries. Opponents of LGBT adoption question whether same-sex couples have the ability to be adequate parents while other opponents question whether natural law implies that children of adoption possess a natural right to be raised by heterosexual parents. Since constitutions and statutes usually fail to address the adoption rights of LGBT persons, judicial decisions often determine whether they can serve as parents either individually or as couples.
In Germany, women began joining combat units in 2001 after the European Court of Justice ruled that preventing women from such jobs was against gender equality principles. Women can choose any military career they want, including elite groups such as marine commandos. The number of women in the German armed forces tripled between 2001 and 2014, with about 800 women in combat units, including many who have served in the Afghanistan war. Proponents argue that it will help the military retain more women, who tend to leave the services permanently when they have children. Opponents argue that allowing women to serve in these roles would limit the military's ability to fight in combat situations.
Truancy is intentional, unjustified, unauthorized, or illegal absence from compulsory education. Its absence is caused by students of their own free will and does not apply to excused absences. In Germany local child services or social services officers may request the police to escort the child to school, and in extreme cases may petition a court to partially or completely remove child custody from the parents.
Charter schools are tax payer funded K-12 schools that are managed by private companies. In Germany charter schools may only be set up if they do not increase the segregation of pupils by their parents’ income class. Private schools are supported financially by government bodies, comparable to charter schools. The amount of control over school organization, curriculum etc. taken over by the state differs from state to state and from school to school. Academically, all private schools must lead their students to the ability to attain standardized, government-provided external tests such as the Abitur.
Military Service is currently not required in Germany. Between 1956 and 2011 service men were required to serve at least 6 months in the service.
The European Union is a politico-economic union of 28 countries with a combined population of over 510 million. The purpose of the EU was to promote free trade and immigration within its internal market. Each member country would also enact similar laws regarding agriculture and development. Germany has been a member of the EU since January 1958. Proponents leaving the EU argue that membership undermines Germany's sovereignty and leaving would help Germany control immigration. Opponents of leaving the EU argue would damage trade, cause unemployment and harm foreign investment.
In November 2018 German chancellor Angela Merkel and President Emmanuel Macron of France announced that they would support the creation of a European army. Ms. Merkel said that the EU should rely less on the U.S. for military support and that “Europeans should take our fate more into our own hands if we want to survive as a European community.” Ms. Merkley said the army would not oppose NATO. President Marcon said the army is needed to protect the EU against China, Russia and the United States. Proponents argue that the EU lacks a united defence force to handle sudden conflicts outside of NATO. Opponents question how the army would fund itself since many EU countries spend less than 2% of their GDP on defence.
In 2015, the German government announced it was raising its defense spending in order to meet a NATO requirement that all members budgets be at least 2% of GDP. Germany’s current military budget is 1.2% of GDP or €33 billion. The additional funding will allow the defense ministry to expand its armed forces and support NATO engagement in the ongoing conflict between Russia and Ukraine.
Germany and coalition forces invaded Afghanistan in 2001 after the September 11 terror attacks. After the attacks , U.S. intelligence officials determined that the Afghani-based militant organization Al-Qaeda was responsible. In 2001 90% of Afghanistan was controlled by the Sunni Islamic military organization The Taliban. After the Taliban refused requests by U.S. President George W. Bush to dismantle Al-Qaeda coalition forces launched military operations known as Operation Enduring Freedom. As of June 27, 2019 57 troops from Germany died in the conflict.
The UK and Northern Ireland are scheduled to leave the EU on March 29, 2019. Under a transition agreement all trade and economic relations between the UK and the EU will remain the same until the end of 2022. In 2018 members of parliament and Prime Minister Theresa May proposed a “backstop” which would allow the UK and Northern Ireland to remain inside the EU’s single market for goods and farm products. Proponents argue that keeping the UK in the EU’s customers area will boost the economy by streamlining trade and tourism. Opponents, including anti-EU lawmakers, argue that the backstop would lock the UK inside the EU’s customs area permanently and prevent it from signing trade deals on its own.
Germany has been under pressure from its allies and other countries to accept refugees from Syria by the end of 2015. Proponents argue that Germany has a duty to join its allies in Europe and accept at least 800,000 refugees. Opponents argue that Germany should stay out of this crisis and accepting refugees from the Middle East leads to a risk of letting terrorists into its borders.
In 2013, the German government pledged that foreign aid spending would rise to .7% of GNI. In 2015, the government’s budget included €6.44 billion or less than .4% of its GNI. Proponents argue that this is lower than other developed countries and aid spending should be increased to help combat poverty and illnesses in developing countries. Opponents argue that the German government is facing a deficit and cannot afford increased spending right now.
Foreign electoral interventions are attempts by governments, covertly or overtly, to influence elections in another country. A 2016 study by Dov H. Levin concluded that the country intervening in most foreign elections was the United States with 81 interventions, followed by Russia (including the former Soviet Union) with 36 interventions from 1946 to 2000. In July 2018 U.S. Representative Ro Khanna introduced an amendment that would have prevented U.S. intelligence agencies from receiving funding that could be used to interfere in the elections of foreign governments. The amendment would ban U.S. agencies from “hacking foreign political parties; engaging in the hacking or manipulation of foreign electoral systems; or sponsoring or promoting media outside the United States that favors one candidate or party over another.” Proponents of election interference helps keep hostile leaders and political parties out of power. Opponents argue that the amendment would send a message to other foreign countries that the U.S. does not interfere in election and set a global gold standard for preventing election interference. Opponents argue that election interference helps keep hostile leaders and political parties out of power.
Tension between Germany and Israel have escalated recently as Angela Merkel expressed doubts about the Israeli government's intentions in pursuing a two-state solution with Palestine. Mrs. Merkel disagrees with Mr. Netanyahu’s plans to expand Jewish settlements on Palestinian land.
The North Atlantic Treaty Organization is an intergovernmental military alliance based on the North Atlantic Treaty which was signed on April 4th, 1949. It is a political and military alliance of member countries from Europe and North America that agree to provide military and economic security for each other. NATO makes all of its decisions by consensus and every member country, no matter how large or small, has an equal say.
The UN. is an organization of governments founded in 1945 after World War II. The organization’s objectives include promoting peace and security, protecting human rights and the environment and providing humanitarian aid in cases of famine, natural disaster, and armed conflict. Recent U.N. interventions include the Sri Lankan civil war in 2009 and the 2010 earthquake in Haiti. In 1955 West Germany was admitted into the UN. East Germany was admitted into the UN in as a non-voting observer in 1972. In 1990 the Federal Republic of Germany was formally recognized by the UN. Germany is the third largest financial contributor to the UN and contributes $140 million annually.
German drug policies are considered among the strictest in Europe. Although serious penalties are attached to the sale or possession of large quantities of drugs, there is no criminal action taken for small-scale possession or the use of many narcotics including marijuana. The German government has even gone so far as to allow for supervised "drug rooms" like those found in the Netherlands, where individuals can safely use their drug of choice and receive counseling when needed. In 1994 the Federal Constitutional Court ruled that drug addiction was not a crime, as was the possession of small amounts of drugs for personal use. In 2000 the German narcotic law ("BtmG") was changed to allow for supervised drug-injection rooms. In 2002, a pilot study was started in seven German cities to evaluate the effects of heroin-assisted treatment on addicts, compared to methadone-assisted treatment. The positive results of the study led to the inclusion of heroin-assisted treatment into the services of the mandatory health insurance in 2009.
In August 2015, the German weekly Die Zeit disclosed reported that BND completed a deal with the NSA to get access to the surveillance platform XKeyscore. Internal documents show that Germany's domestic intelligence agency, the Federal Office for the Protection of the Constitution (BfV), received the software program XKeyscore from the NSA in return of data from Germany.
In January 2018 Germany passed the NetzDG law which required platforms like Facebook, Twitter and YouTube to take down perceived illegal content within 24 hours or seven days, depending on the charge, or risk a fine of €50 million ($60 million) fines. In July 2018 representatives from Facebook, Google and Twitter denied to the U.S. House of Representatives Judiciary committee that they censor content for political reasons. During the hearing Republican members of Congress criticized the social media companies for politically motivated practices in removing some content, a charge the companies rejected. In April 2018 the European Union issued a series of proposals that would crack down on “online misinformation and fake news.” In June 2018 President Emmanuel Macron of France proposed a law which would give French authorities the power to immediately halt “the publication of information deemed to be false ahead of elections.”
Flag desecration is any act that is carried out with the intention of damaging or destroying a national flag in public. This is commonly done in an effort to make a political statement against a nation or its policies. Some nations have acts that ban flag desecration while others have laws that protect the right to destroy a flag as a part of free speech. Some of these laws distinguish between a national flag and those of other countries.
In September 2015, Martin Winterkorn stepped down as chief executive of Volkswagen AG after it was revealed that the company rigged millions of vehicles to cheat on emissions tests. Mr. Winterkorn could receive severance compensation of up to €60 million. German prosecutors recently opened a probe to determine if Mr. Winterkorn was criminally negligible.
A term limit is a law which limits the length of time a person may serve in an elected office. There are no term limits in Germany. If Chancellor Angela Merkel is re-elected in 2017 and serves her full four-year term, she will tie with Helmut as the longest-serving chancellor in the history of the Bundesrepublik. Members of the Bundestag must be re-elected every five years.
In October 2019 Twitter CEO Jack Dorsey announced that his social media company would ban all political advertising. He stated that political messages on the platform should reach users through the recommendation of other users – not through paid reach. Proponents argue that social media companies don’t have the tools to stop the spread of false information since their advertising platforms aren’t moderated by human beings. Opponents argue that the ban will disenfranchise candidates and campaigns who rely on social media for grassroots organizing and fundraising.
At a 2014 Vodafone conference, German chancellor Angela Merkel suggested that telecoms should be allowed to offer faster internet to higher paying customers. Proponents argue that the additional revenue made by telecoms on these packages would enable them to invest in their infrastructure and take on dominant companies like Netflix and Google. Opponents argue that the government should regulate the internet like a public utility and capping speeds for lower paying customers will limit their choices.
Australia currently has a progressive tax system whereby high income earners pay a higher percentage of tax than low income tax. A more progressive income tax system has been proposed as a tool towards reducing wealth inequality.
A Universal Basic Income program is social security program where all citizens of a country receive a regular, unconditional sum of money from the government. The funding for Universal Basic Income comes from taxation and government owned entities including income from endowments, real estate and natural resources. Several countries, including Finland, India and Brazil, have experimented with a UBI system but have not implemented a permanent program. The longest running UBI system in the world is the Alaska Permanent Fund in the U.S. state of Alaska. In the Alaska Permanent Fund each individual and family receives a monthly sum that is funded by dividends from the state’s oil revenues. Proponents of UBI argue that it will reduce or eliminate poverty by providing everyone with a basic income to cover housing and food. Opponents argue that a UBI would be detrimental to economies by encouraging people to either work less or drop out of the workforce entirely.
In 2014, Angela Merkel set Germany’s first ever minimum wage at €8.50 per hour. Proponents believe this wage is necessary to protect the poor and working class. Business leaders have warned that the wage will threaten employment and cause companies to move their operations to countries with cheaper labor. Of the 28 countries in the EU, 6 do not currently have a minimum wage.
In 2014, the Constitutional Court ruled that a 2009 law exempting corporate successions from inheritance tax was unconstitutional. Corporations obtained nearly €40 billion in tax exemptions while tax authorities collected €4.3 billion in inheritance tax revenue. Proponents of raising the tax argue that the tax breaks concentrate wealth in the hands of a few large industrial dynasties. Opponents argue the tax causes liquidity problems for small and medium size companies when faced by a sudden tax debt following a succession.
Proponents of deficit reduction argue that governments who do not control budget deficits and debt are at risk of losing their ability to borrow money at affordable rates. Opponents of deficit reduction argue that government spending would increase demand for goods and services and help avert a dangerous fall into deflation, a downward spiral in wages and prices that can cripple an economy for years.