Answer the following questions to see how your political beliefs match your political parties and candidates.
The European Union is a politico-economic union of 28 countries with a combined population of over 510 million. The purpose of the EU was to promote free trade and immigration within its internal market. Each member country would also enact similar laws regarding agriculture and development. Germany has been a member of the EU since January 1958. Proponents leaving the EU argue that membership undermines Germany's sovereignty and leaving would help Germany control immigration. Opponents of leaving the EU argue would damage trade, cause unemployment and harm foreign investment.
Military Service is currently not required in Germany. Between 1956 and 2011 service men were required to serve at least 6 months in the service.
In October 2019 the U.S. House of Representatives passed a series of bills supporting protesters in Hong Kong who have a called for democratic reforms in the City. In March 2019 a series of protests began in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China (HKSAR) after the government there introduced the Fugitive Offenders amendment bill. The Fugitive Offenders bill established a mechanism for transfers of fugitives from Hong Kong to Mainland China, Macau and Taiwan. The bill was proposed in response to the 2018 murder of Poon Hiu-wing in Taiwan. After the murder her boyfriend, Chan Tong-kai, left Taiwan and traveled to Hong Kong where he told police that he killed Poon. Taiwanese police were unable to extradite Tong-kai and charge him with the murder because the Taiwanese police did not have an extradition agreement in place with Hong Kong. Opponents of the bill argued that it would allow the mainland Chinese government to extradite citizens in Hong Kong - effectively putting them under Chinese law. Opponents also argues that the Chinese criminal process does not have an independent judiciary, fair public trials and lack of access to legal representation. On September 4, 2019, after 13 weeks of protests, Hong Kong Chief Executive Carrie Lam promised to withdraw the bill.
Germany and coalition forces invaded Afghanistan in 2001 after the September 11 terror attacks. After the attacks , U.S. intelligence officials determined that the Afghani-based militant organization Al-Qaeda was responsible. In 2001 90% of Afghanistan was controlled by the Sunni Islamic military organization The Taliban. After the Taliban refused requests by U.S. President George W. Bush to dismantle Al-Qaeda coalition forces launched military operations known as Operation Enduring Freedom. As of June 27, 2019 57 troops from Germany died in the conflict.
The UN. is an organization of governments founded in 1945 after World War II. The organization’s objectives include promoting peace and security, protecting human rights and the environment and providing humanitarian aid in cases of famine, natural disaster, and armed conflict. Recent U.N. interventions include the Sri Lankan civil war in 2009 and the 2010 earthquake in Haiti. In 1955 West Germany was admitted into the UN. East Germany was admitted into the UN in as a non-voting observer in 1972. In 1990 the Federal Republic of Germany was formally recognized by the UN. Germany is the third largest financial contributor to the UN and contributes $140 million annually.
In 2013, the German government pledged that foreign aid spending would rise to .7% of GNI. In 2015, the government’s budget included €6.44 billion or less than .4% of its GNI. Proponents argue that this is lower than other developed countries and aid spending should be increased to help combat poverty and illnesses in developing countries. Opponents argue that the German government is facing a deficit and cannot afford increased spending right now.
The North Atlantic Treaty Organization is an intergovernmental military alliance based on the North Atlantic Treaty which was signed on April 4th, 1949. It is a political and military alliance of member countries from Europe and North America that agree to provide military and economic security for each other. NATO makes all of its decisions by consensus and every member country, no matter how large or small, has an equal say.
In July 2017, 43 U.S. Senators proposed a law that would make it a crime for Americans to support the international boycott against Israel. The bill would levy large fines and prison time for businesses and individuals who don’t buy from Israeli companies operating in occupied Palestinian territories, and who make statements, including social media posts, saying that they are doing so in order to boycott. The international boycott of Israel was launched in 2006 by Palestinian NGO’s to protest Israel’s “occupation and colonization of Arab lands.” Supporting the boycott is considered a “civil wrong” in Israel and has been officially condemned by the governments of Australia, France and the U.K. Proponents of the law argue it could cause severe economic harm to, Israel which is an important ally of the western nations in the Middle East. Opponents of the law argue that it is a suppression of free speech and citizens should be able to protest and boycott any foreign country.
Foreign electoral interventions are attempts by governments, covertly or overtly, to influence elections in another country. A 2016 study by Dov H. Levin concluded that the country intervening in most foreign elections was the United States with 81 interventions, followed by Russia (including the former Soviet Union) with 36 interventions from 1946 to 2000. In July 2018 U.S. Representative Ro Khanna introduced an amendment that would have prevented U.S. intelligence agencies from receiving funding that could be used to interfere in the elections of foreign governments. The amendment would ban U.S. agencies from “hacking foreign political parties; engaging in the hacking or manipulation of foreign electoral systems; or sponsoring or promoting media outside the United States that favors one candidate or party over another.” Proponents of election interference helps keep hostile leaders and political parties out of power. Opponents argue that the amendment would send a message to other foreign countries that the U.S. does not interfere in election and set a global gold standard for preventing election interference. Opponents argue that election interference helps keep hostile leaders and political parties out of power.
In November 2018 German chancellor Angela Merkel and President Emmanuel Macron of France announced that they would support the creation of a European army. Ms. Merkel said that the EU should rely less on the U.S. for military support and that “Europeans should take our fate more into our own hands if we want to survive as a European community.” Ms. Merkley said the army would not oppose NATO. President Marcon said the army is needed to protect the EU against China, Russia and the United States. Proponents argue that the EU lacks a united defence force to handle sudden conflicts outside of NATO. Opponents question how the army would fund itself since many EU countries spend less than 2% of their GDP on defence.
In 2015, the German government announced it was raising its defense spending in order to meet a NATO requirement that all members budgets be at least 2% of GDP. Germany’s current military budget is 1.2% of GDP or €33 billion. The additional funding will allow the defense ministry to expand its armed forces and support NATO engagement in the ongoing conflict between Russia and Ukraine.
Tension between Germany and Israel have escalated recently as Angela Merkel expressed doubts about the Israeli government's intentions in pursuing a two-state solution with Palestine. Mrs. Merkel disagrees with Mr. Netanyahu’s plans to expand Jewish settlements on Palestinian land.
Germany has been under pressure from its allies and other countries to accept refugees from Syria by the end of 2015. Proponents argue that Germany has a duty to join its allies in Europe and accept at least 800,000 refugees. Opponents argue that Germany should stay out of this crisis and accepting refugees from the Middle East leads to a risk of letting terrorists into its borders.
The UK and Northern Ireland are scheduled to leave the EU on March 29, 2019. Under a transition agreement all trade and economic relations between the UK and the EU will remain the same until the end of 2022. In 2018 members of parliament and Prime Minister Theresa May proposed a “backstop” which would allow the UK and Northern Ireland to remain inside the EU’s single market for goods and farm products. Proponents argue that keeping the UK in the EU’s customers area will boost the economy by streamlining trade and tourism. Opponents, including anti-EU lawmakers, argue that the backstop would lock the UK inside the EU’s customs area permanently and prevent it from signing trade deals on its own.
Felony disenfranchisement is the exclusion from voting of people otherwise eligible to vote due to conviction of a criminal offense, usually restricted to the more serious class of crimes deemed felonies. Prisoners and those convicted of felonies have full voting rights in Germany unless they receive a court order banning them from voting.
Since 1999, the executions of drug smugglers have become more common in Indonesia, Iran, China and Pakistan. In March 2018, U.S. President Donald Trump proposed executing drug traffickers to fight his country’s opioid epidemic. 32 countries impose the death penalty for drug smuggling. Seven of these countries (China, Indonesia, Iran, Saudi Arabia, Vietnam, Malaysia and Singapore) routinely execute drug offenders. Asia and the Middle East’s tough approach contrasts with many Western countries who have legalized cannabis in recent years (selling cannabis in Saudi Arabia is punished by beheading).
Private prisons are incarceration centers that are run by a for-profit company instead of a government agency. The companies that operate private prisons are paid a per-diem or monthly rate for each prisoner they keep in their facilities. There are currently no private prisons in Germany. Opponents of private prisons argue that incarceration is a social responsibility and that entrusting it to for-profit companies is inhumane. Proponents argue that prisons run by private companies are consistently more cost effective than those run by government agencies.
Truancy is intentional, unjustified, unauthorized, or illegal absence from compulsory education. Its absence is caused by students of their own free will and does not apply to excused absences. In Germany local child services or social services officers may request the police to escort the child to school, and in extreme cases may petition a court to partially or completely remove child custody from the parents.
Charter schools are tax payer funded K-12 schools that are managed by private companies. In Germany charter schools may only be set up if they do not increase the segregation of pupils by their parents’ income class. Private schools are supported financially by government bodies, comparable to charter schools. The amount of control over school organization, curriculum etc. taken over by the state differs from state to state and from school to school. Academically, all private schools must lead their students to the ability to attain standardized, government-provided external tests such as the Abitur.
Australia currently has a progressive tax system whereby high income earners pay a higher percentage of tax than low income tax. A more progressive income tax system has been proposed as a tool towards reducing wealth inequality.
In 2014, Angela Merkel set Germany’s first ever minimum wage at €8.50 per hour. Proponents believe this wage is necessary to protect the poor and working class. Business leaders have warned that the wage will threaten employment and cause companies to move their operations to countries with cheaper labor. Of the 28 countries in the EU, 6 do not currently have a minimum wage.
Proponents of deficit reduction argue that governments who do not control budget deficits and debt are at risk of losing their ability to borrow money at affordable rates. Opponents of deficit reduction argue that government spending would increase demand for goods and services and help avert a dangerous fall into deflation, a downward spiral in wages and prices that can cripple an economy for years.
A Universal Basic Income program is social security program where all citizens of a country receive a regular, unconditional sum of money from the government. The funding for Universal Basic Income comes from taxation and government owned entities including income from endowments, real estate and natural resources. Several countries, including Finland, India and Brazil, have experimented with a UBI system but have not implemented a permanent program. The longest running UBI system in the world is the Alaska Permanent Fund in the U.S. state of Alaska. In the Alaska Permanent Fund each individual and family receives a monthly sum that is funded by dividends from the state’s oil revenues. Proponents of UBI argue that it will reduce or eliminate poverty by providing everyone with a basic income to cover housing and food. Opponents argue that a UBI would be detrimental to economies by encouraging people to either work less or drop out of the workforce entirely.
Bitcoin is a type of digital currency in which encryption techniques are used to regulate the generation of units of currency and verify the transfer of funds, operating independently of a central bank. Bitcoins are stored in a digital wallet, which is like a virtual bank account that allows users to send or receive bitcoins and pay for goods or services. Bitcoin is anonymous, meaning that, while transactions are recorded in a public log, the names of buyers and sellers are never revealed.
An offshore (or foreign) bank account is a bank account you have outside of your country of residence. The benefits of an offshore bank account include tax reduction, privacy, currency diversification, asset protection from lawsuits, and reducing your political risk. In April 2016, Wikileaks released 11.5 million confidential documents, known as the Panama Papers, which provided detailed information on 214,000 offshore companies serviced by the Panamanian Law Firm, Mossack Fonesca. The document exposed how world leaders and wealthy individuals hide money in secret offshore tax shelters. The release of the documents renewed proposals for laws banning the use of offshore accounts and tax havens. Proponents of the of the ban argue they should be outlawed because they have a long history of being vehicles for tax evasion, money laundering, illicit arms dealing and funding terrorism. Opponents of the ban argue that punitive regulations will make it harder for American companies to compete and will further discourage businesses from locating and investing in the United States.
A church tax is a tax imposed on members of some religious congregations in Austria, Denmark, Finland, Germany, Iceland, Italy, Sweden, some parts of Switzerland and several other countries.
A government pension is a fund into which a sum of money is added during the period in which a person is employed by the government. When the government employee retires they are able to receive periodic payments from the fund in order to support themselves. As the birth rate continues to fall and the life expectancy rises governments worldwide are predicting funding shortfalls for pensioners.In 2016 Germany's Bundesbank proposed raising the legal retirement age to 69. Private pension schemes in Germany are personal funded pensions. The funds are protected by law, cannot be seized by creditors or the state and are not eligible to be inherited.
Leaders across Europe, as well in the U.S. government and the International Monetary Fund, are calling for Germany to boost public spending to help reverse the slowdown. But in Berlin, policy makers are sticking to the view that the eurozone crisis and sluggish growth result from a lack of sufficient economic overhauls in struggling countries, especially France and Italy. France has asked Germany to invest an additional €50 billion ($63.8 billion) over three years as a way of countering budget cuts in France.
Germany currently levies a 15% tax on all businesses. The average corporate tax rate worldwide is 22.6%. Opponents of argue that raising the rate will discourage foreign investment and hurt the economy. Proponents argue that the profits corporations generate should be taxed just like citizen's taxes.
In 2011 the level of public spending on the welfare state by the British Government accounted for £113.1 billion, or 16% of government. By 2020 welfare spending will rise to 1/3rd of all spending making it the largest expense followed by housing benefit, council tax benefit, benefits to the unemployed, and benefits to people with low incomes.
The Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP) is a proposed trade agreement between the European Union and the United States, with the aim of promoting trade and multilateral economic growth. The agreement is opposed by unions, charities, NGOs, and environmentalists in Europe who criticize the agreement for reducing regulations on food safety and environmental legislation.
In 2015 the German Cabinet Thursday approved a draft labour relations law that would simplify negotiations between corporations and unions. The draft law specified that for any corporation, only a single union would be recognised as the official wage-bargaining partner, and the resulting agreement would hold for all the company's employees. The law restricts union representation in a company and just one union will be allowed to represent a group of employees.
In 2014, the Constitutional Court ruled that a 2009 law exempting corporate successions from inheritance tax was unconstitutional. Corporations obtained nearly €40 billion in tax exemptions while tax authorities collected €4.3 billion in inheritance tax revenue. Proponents of raising the tax argue that the tax breaks concentrate wealth in the hands of a few large industrial dynasties. Opponents argue the tax causes liquidity problems for small and medium size companies when faced by a sudden tax debt following a succession.
In 2014, the EU passed legislation that capped bankers' bonuses at 100% of their pay or 200% with shareholder approval. In Germany 4 of the 15 major banks have instituted caps. Several banks avoided the cap by classifying manager as non-risk takers. Of the 87 bank managers in Germany that earned bonuses of more than 1 million euros ($1.37 million) in 2012, only 40 had been identified as being risk-takers. Proponents of the cap say that it will reduce incentives for bankers to take excessive risk similar to what led to the 2008 financial crisis. Opponents say that any cap on bankers' pay will push up non-bonus pay and cause bank's costs to rise.
A farm subsidy is a form of financial aid paid to farmers by the government. Farmers in the European Union receive 35% of their incomes in subsidies and farmers in the U.S. receive 28%. Proponents of higher subsidies argue that they are necessary to compete with agriculture exports from other western countries. Opponents argue that the farmers should fend for themselves and point out that 2,300 farmers who do not grow crops receive annual subsidies.
In 2019 the European Union and U.S. Democratic Presidential Candidate Elizabeth Warren issued proposals that would regulate Facebook, Google and Amazon. Senator Warren proposed that the U.S. government should designate tech companies who have global revenue of over $25 billion as “platform utilities" and break them up into smaller companies. Senator Warren argues that the companies have “bulldozed competition, used our private information for profit, and tilted the playing field against everyone else.” Lawmakers in the European Union proposed a set of rules which include a blacklist of unfair trading practices, requirements that companies set up an internal system to handle complaints and allow businesses to group together to sue platforms. Opponents argue that these companies have benefited consumers by providing free online tools and bring more competition into commerce. Opponents also point out that history has shown that dominance in technology is a revolving door and that many companies (including IBM in the 1980’s) have cycled through it with little to no help from the government.
According to the government statistics agency, the gender pay gap, measuring gross hourly wages of men and women, stood at 22% in 2014, unchanged over the previous five years. That is down 1% from the pay gap for the years 2006 to 2009.
5 U.S. states have passed laws requiring welfare recipients to be tested for drugs. Germany does not currently test welfare recipients for drugs. Proponents argue that testing will prevent public funds from being used to subsidize drugs habits and help get treatment for those that are addicted to drugs. Opponents argue that it is a waste of money since the tests will cost more money than they save.
In 2015, the European Union proposed a three year €86b bailout package for Greece. In order to receive the bailout, Greek Prime Minister Alexis Tsipras agreed to budget cuts including pension reforms. Opponents argue that the Greek government cannot be trusted to live up to the terms of the bailout, since they recently pledged to oppose any budget cuts. Proponents argue that the Euro will lose value if the Greek economy fails.
A tariff is a tax on imports or exports between countries.
An estimate made in 2009 calculated that there are 4.3 million Muslims in Germany (5.4% of the population). Of these, 1.9 million are German citizens (2.4%). As of 2006, about 15,000 Muslims are converts of ethnic German ancestry.
Multiple citizenship, also called dual citizenship is a person's citizenship status, in which a person is concurrently regarded as a citizen of more than one state under the laws of those states. There is no international convention which determines the nationality or citizen status of a person, which is defined exclusively by national laws, which vary and can be inconsistent with each other. Some countries do not permit dual citizenship. Most countries that permit dual citizenship still may not recognize the other citizenship of its nationals within its own territory, for example, in relation to entry into the country, national service, duty to vote, etc.
Since 2008, anyone applying for German citizenship has had to take a test on their new country's history, politics, and values. Opponents argue that, with 300 questions, the test is too hard. Proponents argue that all immigrants applying to live in Germany should have knowledge about their new country.
In 2015 the U.S. House of Representatives introduced the Establishing Mandatory Minimums for Illegal Reentry Act of 2015 (Kate’s Law.) The law was introduced after San Francisco 32 year old San Francisco resident Kathryn Steinle was shot and killed by Juan Francisco Lopez-Sanchez on July 1, 2015. Lopez-Sanchez was an illegal immigrant from Mexico who had been deported on five separate occasions since 1991 and been charged with seven felony convictions. Since 1991 Lopez-Sanchez had been charged with seven felony convictions and deported five times by the U.S. Immigration and Naturalization Service. Although Lopez-Sanchez had several outstanding warrants in 2015 authorities were unable to deport him due to San Francisco’s sanctuary city policy which prevents law enforcement officials from questioning a resident’s immigration status. Proponents of sanctuary city laws argue that they enable illegal immigrants to report crimes without the fear of being reported. Opponents argue that sanctuary city laws provide encourage illegal immigration and prevent law enforcement authorities from detaining and deporting criminals.
Skilled temporary work visas are usually given to foreign scientists, engineers, programmers, architects, executives, and other positions or fields where demand outpaces supply. Most businesses argue that hiring skilled foreign workers allows them to competitively fill positions which are in high demand. Opponents argue that skilled immigrants decrease middle class wages and job tenure.
In August 2015, the German weekly Die Zeit disclosed reported that BND completed a deal with the NSA to get access to the surveillance platform XKeyscore. Internal documents show that Germany's domestic intelligence agency, the Federal Office for the Protection of the Constitution (BfV), received the software program XKeyscore from the NSA in return of data from Germany.
German drug policies are considered among the strictest in Europe. Although serious penalties are attached to the sale or possession of large quantities of drugs, there is no criminal action taken for small-scale possession or the use of many narcotics including marijuana. The German government has even gone so far as to allow for supervised "drug rooms" like those found in the Netherlands, where individuals can safely use their drug of choice and receive counseling when needed. In 1994 the Federal Constitutional Court ruled that drug addiction was not a crime, as was the possession of small amounts of drugs for personal use. In 2000 the German narcotic law ("BtmG") was changed to allow for supervised drug-injection rooms. In 2002, a pilot study was started in seven German cities to evaluate the effects of heroin-assisted treatment on addicts, compared to methadone-assisted treatment. The positive results of the study led to the inclusion of heroin-assisted treatment into the services of the mandatory health insurance in 2009.
In October 2019 Twitter CEO Jack Dorsey announced that his social media company would ban all political advertising. He stated that political messages on the platform should reach users through the recommendation of other users – not through paid reach. Proponents argue that social media companies don’t have the tools to stop the spread of false information since their advertising platforms aren’t moderated by human beings. Opponents argue that the ban will disenfranchise candidates and campaigns who rely on social media for grassroots organizing and fundraising.
At a 2014 Vodafone conference, German chancellor Angela Merkel suggested that telecoms should be allowed to offer faster internet to higher paying customers. Proponents argue that the additional revenue made by telecoms on these packages would enable them to invest in their infrastructure and take on dominant companies like Netflix and Google. Opponents argue that the government should regulate the internet like a public utility and capping speeds for lower paying customers will limit their choices.
Flag desecration is any act that is carried out with the intention of damaging or destroying a national flag in public. This is commonly done in an effort to make a political statement against a nation or its policies. Some nations have acts that ban flag desecration while others have laws that protect the right to destroy a flag as a part of free speech. Some of these laws distinguish between a national flag and those of other countries.